The Microsoft .NET Framework
The C# language is not distributed as a standalone product – it is a part of the Microsoft .NET Framework platform (pronounced "Microsoft dot net framework"). .NET Framework generally consists of an environment for the development and execution of programs, written in C# or some other language, compatible with .NET (like VB.NET, Managed C++, J# or F#). It consists of:
- the .NET programming languages (C#, VB.NET, and others);
- an environment for the execution of managed code (CLR), which executes C# programs in a controlled manner;
- a set of development tools, such as the CSC compiler, which turns C# programs into intermediate code (called MSIL) that the CLR can understand;
- a set of standard libraries, like ADO.NET, which allow access to databases (such as MS SQL Server or MySQL) and WCF which connects applications through standard communication frameworks and protocols like HTTP, REST, JSON, SOAP, and TCP sockets
. The .NET Framework is part of every modern Windows distribution and is available in different versions. The latest version can be downloaded and installed from Microsoft’s website. As of this book’s publishing, the latest version of the .NET Framework is 4.5. Windows Vista includes out-of-the-box .NET Framework 2.0, Windows 7 – .NET 3.5 and Windows 8 – .NET 4.5.
There are many reasons why we chose C# for our book. It is a modern programming language, widely spread, used by millions of programmers around the entire world. At the same time, C# is very simple and easy to learn (unlike C and C++). It is natural to start with a language that is suitable for beginners while still widely used in the industry by many large companies, making it one of the most popular programming languages nowadays.
C# or Java?
Although this can be extensively discussed, it is commonly acknowledged that Java is the most serious competitor to C#. We will not make a comparison between Java and C#, because C# is undisputedly the better, more powerful, richer and just better engineered. But, for the purposes of this book, we have to emphasize that any modern programming language will be sufficient to learn programming and algorithms. We chose C# because it is easier to learn and is distributed with highly convenient, free integrated development environment (e.g. Visual C# Express Edition). Those who prefer Java can prefer to use the Java version of this book, which can be found here: www.introprogramming.info.
Why Not PHP?
With regards to programming languages popularity, besides C# and Java, another widely used language is PHP. It is suitable for developing small web sites and web applications, but it gives rise to serious difficulties when implementing large and complicated software systems. In the software, industry PHP is used first and foremost for small projects, because it can easily lead developers into writing code that is bad, disorganized and hard to maintain, making it inconvenient for more substantial projects. This subject is also debatable, but it is commonly accepted that because of its antiquated concepts and origins it is built on and because of various evolutionary reasons, PHP is a language that tends towards low-quality programming, writing bad code and creating hard to maintain software. PHP is a procedural language in concept and although it supports the paradigms of modern object-oriented programming, most PHP programmers write procedurally. PHP is known as the language of "code monkeys" in the software engineering profession because most PHP programmers write terrifyingly low-quality code. Because of the tendency to write low-quality, badly structured and badly organized programming code, the entire concept of the PHP language and platform is considered wrong and serious companies (like Microsoft, Google, SAP, Oracle, and their partners) avoid it. Due to this reason, if you want to become a serious software engineer, start with C# or Java and avoid PHP (as much as possible).
Certainly, PHP has its uses in the world of programming (for example creating a blog with WordPress, a small web site with Joomla or Drupal, or discussion board with PhpBB), but the entire PHP platform is not well organized and engineered for large systems like .NET and Java. When it comes to non-web-based applications and large industrial projects, PHP is not by a long shot among the available options. Lots and lots of experience are necessary to use PHP correctly and to develop high-quality professional projects with it. PHP developers usually learn from tutorials, articles and low-quality books and pick up bad practices and habits, which then are hard to eradicate. Therefore, do not learn PHP as your first development language. Start with C# or Java.
Based on the large experience of the authors' collective we advise you to begin programming with C# and ignore languages such as C, C++, and PHP until the moment you have to use them.